Project Results

ZARATHUSTRA Archive

Below you can find various documents, datasets, code, and media related with the project.

Peer-reviewed publications

Open-access peer reviewed publications of the ZARATHUSTRA project will appear here as soon as they are released.

  1. M. Merino, J. Nuez and E. Ahedo (2021): “Fluid-kinetic model of a propulsive magnetic nozzle“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 30 115006
  2. M. Merino, D. García-Lahuerta and E. Ahedo (2023): “Plasma acceleration in a magnetic arch“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 32 065005
  3. J. Young Kim, K. J. Chung, K. Takahashi, M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2023): “Kinetic electron cooling in magnetic nozzle: Experiments and modeling“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 32 073001
  4. P. Jiménez, J. Zhou, J. Navarro, P. Fajardo, M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2023): “Analysis of a cusped helicon plasma thruster discharge“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 32 105013
  5. P. Jiménez, L. Chacon and M. Merino (2024): “An implicit, conservative electrostatic particle-in-cell algorithm for paraxial magnetic nozzles“, Journal of Computational Physics, 502 112826
  6. A. Marín-Cebrián, E. Bello-Benítez, A. Domínguez-Vázquez and E. Ahedo (2024): “Non-Maxwellian electron effects on the macroscopic response of a Hall thruster discharge from an axial–radial kinetic model“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 33 025008
  7. M. Inchingolo, M. Merino, M. Wijnen and J. Navarro-Cavallé (2024) “Direct Thrust Measurements of a waveguide Electron Cyclotron Resonance Thruster”, Journal of Applied Physics, 135, 093304
  8. B. Bayón-Bujan, M. Merino (2024) “Data-driven sparse modeling of oscillations in plasma space propulsion“, availiable as a preprint on ArXiv arXiv:2403.06809v1 [physics.plasm-ph].

Conferences

Presentations at international conferences by the ZARATHUSTRA team.

  1. M. Merino, J. Navarro, C. Boyé, P. Jiménez, M. Inchingolo, J. Zhou, E. Ahedo (2022), Radiofrequency Plasma Heating for Electrodeless Space Thruster Applications, IMPI’s 56th Annual Microwave Power Symposium (IMPI 56).
  2. M. Merino, D. García-Lahuerta, C. Boyé, J. Navarro, E. Ahedo (2022), Preliminary model of the plasma expansion in a magnetic arch thruster (and overview of the first prototype), 37th International Electric Propulsion Conference Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  3. M. Merino (2022), Electrodeless plasma thrusters and magnetized plasma expansions for space propulsionInvited talk at the 75th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, held in Sendai, Japan.
  4. D. García-Lahuerta, M. Merino, E. Ahedo (2023), Simulation of facility effects on magnetic nozzle expansions, Plasma Processing and Technology International Conference – Plasma Tech 2023, Lisbon, Portugal.
  5. C. Boyé, J. Navarro, M. Merino (2023), First Characterization of a dual ECR Thruster, Plasma Processing and Technology International Conference – Plasma Tech 2023, Lisbon, Portugal.
  6. M. Merino, D. Maddaloni, C. Boyé, D. García-Lahuerta, M. Ripoli, B. Bayón, P. Jiménez, F. Terragni, J. Navarro, P. Fajardo, E. Ahedo (2023), ERC-ZARATHUSTRA: advances in electrodeless plasma thruster modeling, experiments, and data-driven analysis, EPIC Workshop, Naples, italy.
  7. P. Jiménez, L. Chacon, M. Merino (2023), Implicit conservative particle-in-cell kinetic simulations of magnetic nozzles, 50th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.
  8. P. Jiménez, M. Merino, C. Boyé, D. García-Lahuerta, J. Navarro, E. Ahedo (2023), Experiments and simulations of a magnetic arch plasma expansion for space propulsion, 50th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.
  9. B. Bayón, M. Merino (2023), Data-driven Identification of the Breathing Mode governing equations, International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases ICPIG XXXV,  Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands.
  10. D. García-Lahuerta, M. Merino, E. Ahedo (2023), Modeling the effect of neutral dynamics on magnetic nozzle performances, International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases ICPIG XXXV,  Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands.
  11. D. Maddaloni, J. Navarro-Cavallé, M. Merino, F. Terragni (2023), Experimental investigation of oscillations in a magnetic nozzle, International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases ICPIG XXXV,  Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands.
  12. C. Boyé, J. Navarro-Cavallé, M. Merino (2023), Preliminary Analysis of the Magnetic Arch Plasma in a Cluster of EPTs, Joint 10th EUCASS – 9th CEAS Conference, Laussane, Switzerland.
  13. M. Merino, D. Maddaloni, B. Bayón, F. Terragni, J. Navarro-Cavallé (2023), Data-Driven Analysis Techniques for Plasma Space Propulsion Experiments and Simulations, Invited Talk at International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas – PLASMA 2023, Warsaw, Poland.
  14. M. Merino, D. Maddaloni, M. Ripoli, J. Navarro-Cavallé, F. Terragni, E. Ahedo (2023), Oscillations and Instabilities in a Propulsive Magnetic Nozzle, 76th Gaseous Electronics Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
  15. A. Marín-Cebrián, E. Bello-Benítez, A. Domínguez-Vázquez, E. Ahedo (2023), Macroscopic response of a Hall thruster discharge from an axial-radial PIC model, 76th Gaseous Electronics Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
  16. D. García-Lahuerta, M. Merino, E. Ahedo (2023), Simulations of the effect of neutral dynamics in magnetic nozzle expansions, 76th Gaseous Electronics Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Seminars and Workshops

Talks given for seminars, and workshops organized by the ZARATHUSTRA team.

  1. M. Merino (2021), ERC Starting Grant ZARATHUSTRA, Invited talk at Seminar Series on Aerospace Science and Technology, organized by the PhD Program in Aerospace Engineering at UC3M. Video and more information here.
  2. M. Merino (2021), Zarathustra: Revolutionizing Advanced Electrodeless Plasma Thrusters for Space Transportation, Seminar at UC3M Physics Department.
  3. Organization of International ExB Plasmas Workshop (2022), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (online), February 16-18.

Outreach

Talks, demonstrations, and other activities targeted to the general audience.

  1. M. Merino (2021), Guest interview in episode 56 of Cienciado, conducted by the Asociación Española para el Avance de la Ciencia (AEAC).
  2. M. Merino (2021), Descubre el futuro de los cohetes de plasma para viajar por el espacio, La Noche Europea de los Investigadores e Investigadoras de Madrid.
  3. B. Célian, M. Merino (2021), Descubre el futuro de los motores espaciales de plasma,  Workshop at Semana de la Ciencia y la Innovación XXI, Madrid.
  4. D. Maddaloni, M. Merino (2022), Descubre cómo funciona un cohete de plasma, Workshop at Semana de la Ciencia y la Innovación XXII, Madrid.
  5. D. García-Lahuerta, D. Poli (2022), Experimentos de plasmas y principios de propulsión espacial eléctrica, Workshop at Semana de la Ciencia y la Innovación XXII, Madrid.
  6. M. Merino (2023), Interview with the Fundación para el Conocimiento madri+d in Notiweb. Video of the interview here.
  7. M. Merino (2023), Guest interview in episode 661 of the podcast “A Hombros de Gigantes“, a national radio show (RNE). 
  8. Μ. Merino (2023), Invited talk Desarrollando los propulsores espaciales de plasma del futuro , Colegio Mayor Universitario Chaminade, Madrid.
  9. P. Jiménez, M. Merino (2023), Discover how the space plasma thrusters of the future are developed, Interactive talk for the European Researchers’ Night, Madrid.
  10. M. Merino (2024), Descubre cómo se desarrollan los propulsores espaciales de plasma del futuro, Outreach activity for gifted children of secondary education, Madrid. 

Datasets

Downloadable, reusable, and citable datasets from simulations and experiments will appear here as soon as they are available.

  1. M. Merino, J. Nuez and E. Ahedo (2021), Data from: Fluid-kinetic model of a propulsive magnetic nozzle [Data set], In Plasma Sources Science and Technology (1.0.0). Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5557592
  2. M. Merino, D. García-Lahuerta and E. Ahedo (2023), Data from: Plasma acceleration in a magnetic arch [Data set], In Plasma Sources Science and Technology (1.0.3). Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7947735
  3. P. Jiménez, J. Zhou, J. Navarro-Cavallé, P. Fajardo, M. Merino, E. Ahedo (2023). Data from: Analysis of a cusped helicon plasma thruster discharge (1.0) [Data set]. Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8154867
  4. P. Jiménez, M. Merino, L. Chacón (2024). Data from: An implicit, conservative electrostatic particle-in-cell algorithm for paraxial magnetic nozzles (1.2) [Data set]. Zenodo, https://zenodo.org/records/10641332
  5. M. Inchingolo, M. Merino, M. Wijnen and J. Navarro-Cavallé (2024). Data from: Thrust Measurements of a waveguide Electron Cyclotron Resonance Thruster (1.0) [Data set]. Zenodo, https://zenodo.org/records/10680778  

Theses

PhD theses carried out in the context of Project ZARATHUSTRA.

  1. Jiménez, Modeling the wave-plasma ineraction in space plasma thrusters, PhD Thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2019-present
  2. D. Maddaloni, Experimental investigation of space plasma thrusters via data-driven analysis techniques, PhD Thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2020-present
  3. D. García-Lahuerta, Multi-fluid modeling and simulation of advanced electrodeless plasma thrusters, PhD Thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2021-present
  4. C. Boyé, Magnetic arch electrodeless plasma thruster experimental investigation, PhD Thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2021-present
  5. M. Ripoli, Stability analysis of magnetized plasma flows for space propulsion, PhD Thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2022-present
BSc and MSc theses carried out in the context of Project ZARATHUSTRA.
  1. C. Puerto-Sánchez, Non-linear Data Analysis applied to Plasma Space Propulsion, Bachelor in Aerospace Engineering Thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2021
  2. B. Bayón, Sparse Regression for the Breathing Mode Instability: Extracting Governing Equations from Hall Effect Thrusters Simulation Data, Master in Space Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2023

Training sessions

The team regularly holds internal training sessions on different topics, such as space propulsion, plasma physics, mathematics, mechanics, electronics, computer science, and working with computers in the lab. They are released to the public in the hope that they are useful to other people as well.

Numerical codes

The codes developed in the project will be integrated in the GitHub page of the EP2 research group.

Other relevant works

These are documents that predate the project, but of special relevance for its scientific goals.

  1. M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2013), Sistema sin partes móviles ni electrodos y procedimiento para vectorizar el empuje en motores espaciales de plasmaSpanish Patent Office, PCT patent ES2540167.
  2. M. Merino (2019), Motor espacial de plasma sin electrodos con geometría en U“, Spanish Patent Office, PCT patent ES2733773.
  3. E. Ahedo and M. Merino (2010), Two-dimensional supersonic plasma acceleration in a magnetic nozzlePhysics of Plasmas 17, 073501.
  4. M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2017), “Contactless steering of a plasma jet with a 3D magnetic nozzle“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 26, 095001.
  5. M. Merino, J. Mauriño and E. Ahedo (2018), “Kinetic electron model for plasma thruster plumes“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 27, 035013.
  6. J. Ramos, M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2018), “Three dimensional fluid-kinetic model of a magnetically guided plasma jet“, Physics of Plasmas 25, 061206.
  7. S. Correyero, M. Merino, P.Q. Elias, J. Jarrige, D. Packan and E. Ahedo (2019), “Characterization of diamagnetism inside an ECR thruster with a diamagnetic loop”, Physics of Plasmas 26, 053511.
  8. I.D. Kaganovich, A. Smolyakov, Y. Raitses, E. Ahedo, I.G. Mikellides, B. Jorns, F. Taccogna, R. Gueroult, S. Tsikata, A. Bourdon, J.P. Boeuf, M. Keidar, A.T. Powis, M. Merino, M. Cappelli, K. Hara, J.A. Carlsson, N.J. Fisch, P. Chabert, I. Schweigert, T. Lafleur, K. Matyash, A.V. Khrabrov, R. W. Boswell and A. Fruchtman (2020), “Physics of E × B discharges relevant to plasma propulsion and similar technologies”Physics of Plasmas 27, 120601.
  9. A. Sánchez-Villar, J. Zhou, M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2021), “Coupled plasma transport and electromagnetic wave simulation of an ECR thruster”, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 30, 045005.
  10. P. Jiménez, M. Merino and E. Ahedo (2022), “Wave propagation and absorption in a helicon plasma thruster and its plume“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 31, 045009.
  11. D. Maddaloni, A. Domínguez-Vázquez, F. Terragni and M. Merino (2022), “Data-driven analysis of oscillations in Hall thruster simulations“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 31, 045026.
  12. A. Sánchez-Villar, F. Boni, V. Désangles, J. Jarrige, D. Packan, E. Ahedo and M. Merino (2023), “Comparison of a hybrid model and experimental measurements for a dielectric-coated coaxial ECR thruster“, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 32, 014002.
  13. M.R. Inchingolo, M. Merino and J. Navarro-Cavallé (2023), “Plume characterization of a waveguide ECR thruster“, Journal of Applied Physics 133, 113304.